Published people：Internet Society Published time：2020.11.18 Download the number：0
[Abstract] with the development of information technology and urbanization, the prevalence of myopia in children in China is increasing year by year. Nowadays, there are still cognitive and behavioral misunderstandings in the prevention and control of myopia. It is necessary to pay attention to the prevention of myopia, promote scientific diagnosis and treatment, and carry out comprehensive prevention and treatment, so as to control the occurrence and development of children's myopia.
[Key words] myopia; early intervention (Education)
According to the "opinions of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council on strengthening youth sports and strengthening the youth system", and the spirit of the "work plan for myopia prevention and control of primary and secondary school students" (Jiao Ti Yi 2008 No. 7) issued by the Ministry of education, the working goal of significantly reducing the incidence of myopia in China's youth is proposed in about five years. However, there is still a rising trend. The reasons are as follows: the status quo of myopia prevention and control, misunderstanding and suggestions are analyzed as follows.
1、 Current situation of prevention and control
With the development of information technology and urbanization, the prevalence of myopia in adolescents is still increasing year by year. According to the "2010 National Students' physical fitness and health research results" jointly organized by the Ministry of education, the State General Administration of sports, the health and Family Planning Commission, the National Ethnic Affairs Commission, the Ministry of science and technology, and the Ministry of finance, the "2010 National Student Physique and health education and research results" was released Results: the rate of poor eyesight of students of all ages is still high, with 40.89% of primary school students aged 7-12 (including 48.81% in urban areas and 32.98% in rural areas), 9.22 percentage points higher than that in 2005; 67.33% of junior high school students aged 13-15 (including 75.94% in urban areas and 58.74% in rural areas), 9.26% higher than that in 2005; and 79.20% in 16-18-year-old high school students (83.84% in urban areas), 59%) in rural areas, 3.18 percentage points higher than that in 2005; 84.72% of college students aged 19-22 (84.14% in urban areas and 85.30% in rural areas), an increase of 2.04 percentage points over 2005. It is worth noting that: the detection rate of poor eyesight in the low age group increased significantly, such as: the detection rate of poor vision of 7-year-old urban boys, urban girls, rural boys and rural girls were 32.17%, 36.43%, 24.12% and 26.95%, respectively, which increased by 8.71%, 8.76%, 10.56% and 10.32% respectively compared with 2005.
As we all know, primary myopia is divided into two categories, a small number of primary myopia is pathological myopia, may lead to myopia related complications and even blindness, is an important reason for low vision; the vast majority of primary myopia belongs to simple myopia, generally will not cause serious complications, but will also affect life and work. When myopia is far sighted, the fundus has no clear object image, which will affect the cognition, judgment and understanding of external things. In the information society, 80% of the information is transmitted to the brain through the eyes. Myopia will have a great impact on the cognition and understanding of information. What's more, it will directly affect national defense construction. To this end, a "myopia prevention and Control Seminar" was held in Sanya. The participants strongly called on the relevant government departments to pay more attention to the prevention and control of students' myopia, and make practical results.
At present, the measures that have been adopted have not achieved the expected effect
(1) The development of information society, the change of life style and the present situation of exam oriented education;
(2) There is no scientific basis for the prevention and control of myopia products and measures, and the lack of effective management is very supervision;
(3) The promotion of scientific products and measures against approaching is not effective;
(4) Genetic (the gene responsible for hereditary myopia is still unknown).
Our work should focus on solving the second and third causes.
2、 The main problems of myopia prevention and control
（1） Cognitive misunderstanding
It is still believed that the main reason for juvenile myopia is that the adjustment is too strong, because the obsolete idea of "regulation and relaxation" is still used for prevention and control. It is mainly manifested in the following aspects:
(1) It is considered that children can test the correct degree without adjusting paralytic refraction (mydriasis optometry)
(2) When instructing children with low degree myopia to wear corrective glasses, their adjustment and eye position were not considered. They were advised to wear glasses at far sight or not to wear glasses near them
(3) The old principle of "myopia low correction, hyperopia foot correction" was still used when the prescription was determined after optometry;
(4) Regardless of the children's accommodation and eye position, they always adopt progressive multifocal glasses
Regression mirror, double light mirror, anti near mirror and anti fatigue mirror are the main axis of prevention and control of children's myopia. (5) many products, drugs and measures of myopia prevention and control are marked with the words "can make the ciliary muscles relax" or "adjust and relax".
（2） Treat and defend lightly
Children with myopia, almost all parents in the knowledge of children can not see the blackboard words before they found. From the development of eyeball, children are from distant eyes to the eyes of the transition, if the eyeball becomes myopia. So earlier, if we can find that children are prone to myopia, it is more valuable to focus on prevention and control.
（3） Lack of unified coordination mechanism in prevention and control organizations
1. Myopia is caused by many reasons. Prevention and control must be carried out by the health department, education department and society. At present, the education department has set up special personnel in the health department to take charge of the prevention and control of myopia of students. The health department has eye prevention office and public health department, which lacks close contact and coordination.
2. The level of optometrists in China needs to be improved, but the current training and technical management are not unified. For example, the optometrist is classified into the technical assessment, and the rating of intermediate and senior optometrists is the responsibility of human resources department. The reasonable method should be that the technical assessment is the responsibility of the health department, and the human resources department is responsible for the identification and certification of the work certificate. Chongqing is trying hard in this field, which is worth learning from.
（4） Poor supervision of products and measures lacking scientific basis
1. Media advertising of products and measures for myopia prevention and control is too much, for example, a brand of eye paste can treat myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, glaucoma, cataract and almost all other eye diseases.
2. Some products for prevention and control are made in a rough way and lack of instruction.